Polonnaruwa - (1056 - 1236)
The Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was the kingdom from which Sri Lankan kings ruled the island from the 8th century until 1310 CE. Pollonnaruwa was the fifth administrative center of the Kingdom of Rajarata.
The city is situated on the left bank of River Mahaweli. Archeological evidence and accounts in chronicles[4][5] suggests that the city is as old as Anuradhapura. The Vijithagama settlement made by Vijitha in 400 BC is thought to be situated near the town.
Name Pulathisipura is derived from the gardian sage of the city Pulasthi there are several theories on the name Polonnaruwa.According to the most accepted one word is derived from conjunction of to words Pulun which means cotton in sinhala and Maruwa which mean exchanging.So Pulun+Maruwa=Polonnaruwa.
After ruling the country for over 1,200 years from the Kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka was captured by Cholas in 1017A.D.Chola King Rajarajan I captured Anuradhapura and taken king Mahinda V as a captive to India. Mahinda V died in India on 1029. Cholas shifted the capital to Polonnaruwa and ruled Sri Lanka for 52 years. Polonnaruwa was named as Jananathamangalam by the Cholas. King Vijayabahu I defeated Cholas and regained the Sinhalese lineage. Polonnaruwa had previously been an important settlement in the country, as it commanded the crossings of the Mahaweli Ganga towards Anuradhapura.
Some of the rulers of Polonnaruwa include Vijayabahu I and Parakramabahu I (Parakramabahu the Great). Most of Polonnaruwa that remains today dates from after the 1150s, as the extensive civil wars that preceded Parakramabahu's accession to the throne devastated the city. Parakrama Pandyan II from Pandyan Kingdom invaded the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa in the thirteenth century and ruled from 1212 to 1215 CE. He was succeeded by Kalinga Magha the founder of the Jaffna kingdom. Kalinga Magha ruled 21 years until he was expelled from Polonnaruwa in 1236.
The Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was abandoned in the 14th century, and the seat of government for the Sinhalese kings was moved to Yapahuwa. Although many factors contributed to this, the leading cause of the abandonment of Polonnaruwa as the kingdom of Sri Lanka was its susceptibility to invasions from south India.
The kings who ruled in Polonnaruwa engaged in foreign trade. During the period of king Parakramabahu I, Sri Lanka was self-sufficient in paddy and also had exported to many Southeast Asian countries as well as to India. The people of Polonnaruwa had many of their requirements fulfilled except salt, which they had to bring from the coastal area.
King Vijayabahu I1070 - 1110
King Jayabahu I1110 - 1110
King Vikramabahu I1110 - 1131
King Gajabahu II1131 - 1153
King Parakramabahu I1153 - 1186
King Vijayabahu II1186 - 1187
King Mahinda VI1187 - 1187
King Nissanka Malla1187 - 1196
King Vira Bahu I1196 - 1196
King Vikramabahu II1196 - 1196
King Chodaganga1196 - 1197
Queen Leelawathie1197 - 1200
King Sahassa Malla1200 - 1202
Queen Kalyanawathie1202 - 1210
Queen Leelawathie1210 - 1210
King Anikanga1210 - 1210
King Dharmasoka1210 - 1210
King Lokissara1211 - 1211
Queen Leelawathie1212 - 1212
King Parakrama Pandya1212 - 1215
King Kalinga Magha1215 - 1236
King Parakkamabahu III1287 - 1293
House of Vijayabahu1056 - 1187
House of Kalinga1187 - 1197
House of Vijayabahu1197 - 1200
House of Kalinga1200 - 1209
House of Vijayabahu1209 - 1210
Lokissara1210 - 1211
House of Vijayabahu1211 - 1212
Pandyan Dynasty1212 - 1215
House of Kalinga1215 - 1236